One of the most radical methods of infertility treatment is the use of donor embryos during in vitro fertilization.
The basis for the application of this infertility treatment method is the presence of the following indications:
- impossibility to obtain from both spouses their own oocytes/sperm cells;
- repeated negative results during the in vitro fertilization with the use of own embryos of the spouses;
- a high probability of birth of children with genetic pathologies in a married couple;
- absence of a constant sexual partner of the patient and impossibility to obtain her own oocyte.
Donor embryos may be obtained in the following ways:
- by using «fresh» donor oocytes. By this method the oocytes and the spermatozoa donors (anonymous or non-anonymous, according to the recipient's wishes) are selected, the menstrual cycles of the patient/the sustitute mother and the oocytes donor are synchronized and the obtained cells are fertilized with donor spermatozoa. As a result of this procedure embryos are obtained, the most viable of which are transferred to the uterus of the recipient or the sustitute mother;
- by using vitrified (frozen, and then thawed by a special technique) donor oocytes. The use of this method excludes the synchronization of the menstrual cycles of the patient/the sustitute mother and the oocytes donor;
- by using frozen donor embryos, which were obtained as a result of in vitro fetilization, were not used and subjected to cryopreservation. The shelf life of frozen donor embryos is up to ten years.
The endometrium of the patient or the substitute mother is prepared in advance for the transfer of donor embryos with the help of hormonal drugs. On the second or third day after the fertilization or on the day of thawing of frozen donor embryos by the fertility specialist the embryos are transferred to the uterus of the patient. Their number is in advanced agreed with the future parents and is usually 1-2, in exceptional cases – 3 embryos. After the transfer of donor embryos for their better survival supportive hormonal drugs are prescribed to the patient. Currently, the effectiveness of the donor embryos transplanting procedure is about 60% of the total.
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